VOMP 3001 – Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Technologies

Session-1 (6 topics)

  • 1-1 Finished Medicinal Products
    In this lesson, we learn about medical products and the various ways drug products are administered.
  • 1-2 Introduction to Quality Risk Management (QRM)
    In this lesson, we will develop an understanding of the history and the crucial importance of risk management as well as the basic steps involved in its application.
  • 1-3 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) – step 4 “Workshop’ exercise
    In this lesson, we learn about the risk management tool ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ and see an example of where and how we can use it.
  • 1-4 Clinical Trials
    In this lesson, we will gain an understanding of the purpose of clinical trials and learn about their four phases.
  • 1-5 Focus on Patient Safety and Product Quality
    In this class, we will develop a deeper understanding of the importance of patient safety and product quality for medicines and medical devices.
  • 1-6 Process Validation
    In this lesson, we will learn about the various definitions of ‘validation’, as well as for ‘commissioning’, ‘qualification’, and ‘verification.

Session- 2 (7 topics)

  • 2-1 ISPE Baseline Guide 5 – Commissioning Practices
    In this lesson, we learn about the commissioning and qualification of manufacturing equipment systems in the pharmaceutical industries and about the importance of doing system impact and component impact assessments.
  • 2-2 ISPE Baseline Guide 5 – Qualification Practices
    In this lesson, we look again at system and component impact assessment and specifically describe the qualification practices associated with direct impact systems that directly impact on product quality and patient safety.
  • 2-3 ISPE Baseline Guide 5 – Enhanced Design Review (EDR) / (DQ)
    In this lesson, we learn how to do a documented review of the design of the overall process and facility systems for conformance to operational and regulatory expectations.
  • 2-4 Cause and Effect – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    In this lesson, we learn about the risk management tool ‘Cause and Effect’ and see an example of where and how we can use it.
  • 2-5: ISO 9001:2008
    This lesson is about the key requirements of quality management systems.
  • 2-6: Good Engineering Practices (GEP)
    In this presentation, we will develop an understanding of good engineering practices, and learn about some various organizations that produce them.
  • 2-7: ASTM E 2500 – Standard Guide for Specification, Design and Verification
    In this lesson, we will describe a specification, design, and verification approach for equipment systems associated with the pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and medical device industries.

Session-3 – (6 topics)

  • 3-1: GAMP5 – Software Category
    This lesson, looks at the various GAMP categories of software and a ‘v-model’ approach to software projects? It also recommends a method on how to describe a critical computerized system to the regulatory authorities.
  • 3-2: GAMP5 – Scalable Validation Deliverables
    In this lesson, the general content of a computerized validation plan and a summary report is described. Described also is the ‘system implementation lifecycle’ (SILC) and the ‘software development lifecycle’ (SDLC) with associated validation deliverables.
  • 3-3: GAMP5 – Operation Activities
    This lesson describes the typical procedural activities associated with all commercial computerized systems in the operational stage of the lifecycle
  • 3-4: Failure Mode, Effects (and Criticality) Analysis (FMEA / FMEAC) – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    This presentation shows an example of the main steps in performing a ‘Failure Mode, Effects Analysis’ (FMEA) and describes how this risk management technique summarizes the important modes of (a) failure, (b) factors causing these failures, and (c) the likely effects of these failures.
  • 3-5: GAMP5 – Risk-Based Decision Making
    This lesson explains how to apply risk-based decisions, making over the lifecycle of a computerized system: from the concept phase and through the project phase, into the operational phase and finally to the decommissioning stage.
  • 3-5: Product Quality and Current Good Manufacturing Practices [ cGMP]
    In this lesson, we learn how to scientifically define product quality. This lesson also gives an insight into the high-level principles of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP).

Session-4 (7 topics)

  • 4-1: Chemical Reactions
    In this lesson, we describe chemical reactions and list the substances involved, and explain what the rate-controlling steps are.
  • 4-2: Separation Technologies
    In this lesson, we explain how to purify a dissolved compound from a mixture of substances using ‘liquid-liquid extraction’, ‘phase separations’ and ‘crystallization’.
  • 4-3: Batch Organic Chemical Synthesis
    In this lesson, we describe the typical equipment and process stages of the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) using batch organic chemistry synthesis.
  • 4-4: Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    This lesson, explains when and how to do a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) study on a project to analyze hazards, and suggests how to document the process and who should conduct the study.
  • 4-5: Multi-Stage Sequence API Synthesis
    In this lesson, we explore the typical sequence of deriving an API product using batch organic chemical synthesis and the types of facilities used
  • 4-6: API Regulatory Guidelines
    In this lesson, we describe the characteristics of a GMP that can be followed to manufacture an API.
  • 4-7: Relationship Between BPC and API
    In this lesson, we describe the similarities and differences between the terms ‘Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients’ (API) and ‘Bulk Pharmaceutical Chemicals’ (BPC), and we mention some typical material controls?

Session-5 (5 topics)

  • 5-1: Biopharmaceuticals Manufacturing, Upstream, Fermentation
    This lesson describes a conventional biotechnological process and introduces the following process sequences:

    • Stage-I – Upstream Processing
    • Stage-II – Fermentation / Bio-reaction
    • Stage-III – Downstream Processing
  • 5-2: Cellular Protein Synthesis
    This lesson explains the sequence of how a protein is created at a cellular level in terms of its contents and folded structure, and explains the template information necessary for its assembly process.
  • 5-3: Hazard Operability Analysis (HAZOP) – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    In this lesson, we will watch a practical application of HAZOP that will identify process risk events that are caused by deviations from a system’s design or operating intentions. It is a systematic brainstorming technique for identifying hazards using so-called “guide-words” (e.g., No, More, Other Than, Part of, etc.) and applying them to relevant parameters (e.g., contamination, temperature) to help identify potential deviations from normal use or design intentions.
  • 5-4: Downstream Processing – Column Chromatography
    This lesson describes the basic principle behind the following column chromatography techniques:

    • Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC).
    • ‘Ionic Exchange Chromatography (IEX).
    • Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC).
    • ‘Affinity Chromatography
  • 5-5: Biopharmaceuticals Manufacturing: Special Considerations
    This lesson looks at general considerations for a conventional biopharmaceutical process in terms of cell line preservation and viral barrier and viral clearance techniques.

Session-6 (5 topics)

  • 6-1: Engineering Aspects of Cleaning, and Cleaning Equipment
    This lesson discusses how to clean and decontaminate surfaces using CIP (clean-in-place), agitated Immersion, static Immersion (Soaking), automated parts washers, ultrasonic cleaning, high-pressure spraying, and manual cleaning.
  • 6-2: Chemistry Aspects of Cleaning
    This lesson explores chemistry aspects of cleaning in terms of solubility, solubilisation, emulsification, dispersion, wetting, hydrolysis, oxidation and physical removal.
  • 6-3: Event Tree Analysis (ETA) – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    This lesson explores the application of Event tree analysis (ETA). Event tree analysis is an analysis technique for identifying and evaluating the sequence of events in a potential accident scenario following the occurrence of an initiating event. ETA utilizes a visual logic tree structure known as an event tree. The objective of ETA is to determine whether the initiating event will develop into a serious mishap or if the event is sufficiently controlled by the safety systems and procedures implemented in the system design.
  • 6-4: Cleaning Validation
    This lesson takes a high-level look at a typical cleaning validation sequence. It looks at how to determine the basis for quantification limits and explains how to determine cleanliness levels on the basis of the analytical testing of representative samples. Sampling is described in terms of sampling-equipment, sampling -locations, and sampling –procedures.
  • 6-5: ISO-9001 ‘Continual Improvement’ & ICH Q10 Pharmaceutical Quality System
    This lesson explains the concept of ‘continual improvement’ as part of a company’s quality management system and describes an effective corrective action process and a preventive action process (CAPA). It also gives details on the product-lifecycle for a pharmaceutical product and describes the monitoring of process performance and product quality.

Session-7 (7 topics)

  • 7-1: Tablet Manufacturing
    In this lesson, we will explore the critical process parameters and quality attributes associated with the manufacture of medicinal tablets.
  • 7-2: Vial Filling & Freeze Drying
    In this lesson, we will explore the critical process parameters and quality attributes associated with the filling of a medicinal vial and its subsequent freeze-drying.
  • 7-3: FDA Medical Device Rules – CFR 820
    In this lesson, we look at how the FDA classifies medical devices and explore the basis of that classification system.
  • 7-4: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) – step 4 ‘Workshop’ exercise
    In this lesson, we are going to look at a full risk management process called Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and develop an understanding of the seven steps involved.
  • 7-5: Medical Devices – EU Classification
    In this lesson, we look at how medical devices are classified in the European Union, and we explore the basis of the classification system.
  • 7-6: Aseptic & Sterile Manufacturing
    In this lesson, we look at critical process parameters and quality attributes associated with aseptic processing and terminal sterilization products for parenteral products.
  • 7-7: Medical Device Regulations and Guidelines – ISO 13485 / CFR 820
    In this lesson, we look at some GMP regulatory and ISO guidance documents that are associated with the manufacture of medical devices.

Session-8 (3 topics)

  • 8-1: PQ, OQ and IQ
    In this lesson, we are going to define the terms installation qualification (IQ), operational qualification (OQ) and performance qualification (PQ), and we will also list what typical project design documents are required to prepare such testing protocols.
  • 8-2: Documenting the Quality Risk Management Process
    In this lesson, we take a practical look at managing a complete risk management process in terms of identifying risk, analyzing risk, evaluating risk and controlling risk.
  • 8-3: Product Realization & Pharmaceutical Development
    In this lesson, we define the pharmaceutical product lifecycle in terms of development, technology transfer, commercial manufacturing and discontinuation.